The question why they are so many orphans in the world is one that is asked daily, not out of ignorance, but out of sheer unbelief that the world is no longer the same one we grew up in. There are an estimated 153,000,000 orphans worldwide.
Some of these orphans have lost one parent, some both, and some are “virtual” orphans that have been turned out onto the streets by their families, but all are vulnerable and in need of help.
Without assistance these orphans continue in the cycle of poverty, HIV/AIDS, trafficking, prostitution and slavery that haunts developing countries. World Orphans is one of the many agencies whose sole mission is to help break the cycle, put a child back in a family, and put him or her on the road to success.
Number of AIDS Orphans
The number of children who have lost one or both parents to AIDS is estimated to be 16 million (UNAIDS 2010). About 14.8 million AIDS orphans live in Sub-Saharan Africa alone (UNAIDS 2010). Experts believe that millions more orphans remain unaccounted for in India, China and Russia.
In addition to the trauma of losing a parent, orphans are often subject to discrimination and are less likely to receive healthcare, education and other needed services.
In HIV affected households lacking community support, food consumption can drop by 40% putting children at risk to hunger, malnutrition and stunting. Impoverished and often without support to educate and protect them, orphans and vulnerable children face increased risk of HIV infection.
Hollywood’s Adoptive Parents
In a prejudice world, where skin color is regarded over the equality of humanity, these Hollywood parents, are making a HUGE difference. Their selfless act of love and kindness is taking orphans off the street and into loving and stable homes. They are role models who are nurturers, mender of wounds and of the heart.
These Hollywood parents are trendsetters for KolorBlindness in Hollywood. Their act of kindness is encouraging more and more wealthy families to adopt.
Adopting a child is an act of love!
Adoptive Mom to: Maddox Chivan, Zahara Marley and Pax Thien Jolie-Pitt
Angelina Jolie is an American actress and director. She has received an Academy Award, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, and three Golden Globe Awards, and was named Hollywood’s highest-paid actress by Forbes in 2009 and 2011.
Jolie is also a humanitarian fighting for causes of refugees. She is noted for her work with refugees as a Special Envoy and former Goodwill Ambassador for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). She has been cited as the world’s “most beautiful” woman, a title for which she has received substantial media attention.
On March 10, 2002, Jolie adopted her first child, seven-month-old Maddox Chivan, from an orphanage in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. He was born as Rath Vibol on August 5, 2001, in a local village.
Jolie applied for adoption after she had visited Cambodia twice, while filming Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001) and on a UNHCR field mission. The adoption process was halted in December 2001 when the U.S. government banned adoptions from Cambodia amid allegations of child trafficking. Once the adoption was finalized, she took custody of Maddox in Namibia, where she was filming Beyond Borders (2003).
Jolie adopted a daughter, six-month-old Zahara Marley, from an orphanage in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on July 6, 2005. Zahara was born as Yemsrach on January 8, 2005, in Awasa. At the time of the adoption, Zahara was wrongly believed to be an AIDS orphan and it was unknown whether she herself had contracted HIV, but she later tested negative.[
In an attempt to avoid the media frenzy surrounding their relationship, Jolie and Pitt went to Namibia for the birth of their first biological child. On May 27, 2006, Jolie gave birth to a daughter, Shiloh Nouvel, in Swakopmund.
On March 15, 2007, Jolie adopted her second son, three-year-old Pax Thien, from an orphanage in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. He was born as Pham Quang Sang on November 29, 2003, in HCMC, where he was abandoned soon after birth. Jolie adopted Pax as a single parent, because Vietnam’s adoption regulations do not allow unmarried couples to co-adopt.
She gave birth to fraternal twins, son, Knox Léon, and daughter, Vivienne Marcheline, on July 12, 2008.
Angelina Jolie has adopted three children from three countries. When asked what inspired her to become a parent?
“A turning point in my life came when I made Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, in England,” Jolie says. “It also involved filming, partly, in Cambodia. I learned that the world is bigger than I thought it was and there were more important things than a film. I did not know much about Cambodia. I did not appreciate how beautiful it was and I had never met such open-hearted people.”
“Once I became a mom, I realized it was far harder than being Lara Croft,” says the actress, who now has six children — three adopted — with partner Brad Pitt. “I want my kids to appreciate how fortunate they are in life, compared with so many people who have nothing. If anybody ever tells me that I am a mother to them like my mom [Marcheline Bertrand] was to me, it will be a great compliment.”
What makes Jolie remarkable is the fact that, Maddox and Pax are of Asian descent, while Sahara is of African descent. Jolie can be noted as the one who started the adoption of children of different races in Hollywood.
Although Jolie and Pitt both have a hectic and rigorous schedule, they are loving parents to all six of their children. The Jolie/Pitt clan are lucky children who have been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. They are extremely loved by their parents and other siblings.
Adoptive Mom to: Amaya Josephine and Andrew Nicolas Hargitay-Hermann
American actress Mariska Hargitay is best known for her role as New York City’s sex crimes Detective Olivia Benson on the NBC television drama Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, a role that has earned her multiple awards and nominations, including an Emmy and Golden Globe.
But more noteworthy is her selfless role as a loving mother to one (1) biological child and two (2) adopted children.
On June 28, 2006, Hargitay gave birth to son, August Miklos Friedrich Hermann, by an emergency caesarean section. She appeared in the January 2007 issue of Self magazine where she stated that the 15-hour work days on the set of SVU, combined with the stress of an increase in episodes filmed each week, caused her to resort to food for comfort.
By her third trimester, she had gained 54 pounds and developed gestational diabetes. She explained in the interview:
“I was overwhelmed by my lack of energy. All I could do to survive was to eat”.
In April 2011, Hargitay and Hermann (her husband) adopted a baby girl, Amaya Josephine. In October of the same year, she and her husband adopted another baby boy, Andrew Nicolas Hargitay Hermann, who was born in mid-2011.
What makes Hargitay and her husband remarkable is the fact that, Amaya Josephine is of African-American descent.
Amaya Josephine is one of the few lucky orphans who has been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. She is extremely loved by her new mommy and daddy and fits right in with her other siblings.
Adoptive Mom to: David Banda Mwale Ciccone-Ritchie and Mercy James Ciccone-Ritchie
Madonna is a household name worldwide. Her resume/accomplishments consist of singer, songwriter, actress, director, dancer, and entrepreneur. She has sold more than 300 million records worldwide and is recognized as the world’s best-selling female recording artist in history by Guinness World Records.
On October 14, 1996, Madonna gave birth to Lourdes Maria Ciccone-Leon, her daughter with Leon. Around the same time as the release of one of her Music album, Madonna began a relationship with Guy Ritchie, a film director she had met in 1999 through mutual friends Sting and his wife, Trudie Styler.
On August 11, 2000, she gave birth to their son, Rocco Ritchie.
While on tour, Madonna participated in the Raising Malawi initiative by partially funding an orphanage in and traveling to that country. During this time, she was moved by the large number of orphans and fell in love with one of them.
On October 10, 2006, she filed adoption papers for her son, David Banda Mwale, from the orphanage. He was later renamed David Banda Mwale Ciccone Ritchie. The adoption raised strong public reaction, because Malawian law requires would-be parents to reside in Malawi for one year before adopting, which Madonna did not do.
She addressed this on The Oprah Winfrey Show, saying that there were no written adoption laws in Malawi that regulated foreign adoption. She described how Banda had been suffering from pneumonia after surviving malaria and tuberculosis when she first met him.
Banda’s biological father, Yohane, commented: “These so-called human rights activists are harassing me every day, threatening me that I am not aware of what I am doing . They want me to support their court case, a thing I cannot do for I know what I agreed with Madonna and her husband.”
In 2008, Madonna decided to adopt again from Malawi. The country’s High Court initially approved the adoption of Chifundo “Mercy” James; however, the application was rejected because Madonna was not a resident of Malawi. Madonna appealed, and on June 12, 2009, the Supreme Court of Malawi granted Madonna the right to adopt Mercy James.
What makes Madonna remarkable is the fact that, David and Mercy are of African descent.
David and his sister MercyAlthough Madonna has a hectic and rigorous schedule, she is a loving mother to David and his other siblings. David Banda Mwale and Mercy James Ciccone-Ritchie are one of the few lucky orphans who have been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. They are extremely loved by their new mommy and fit right in with their other siblings.
Adopted mom to: Eyob ‘Yoby’ Britton
Connie Britton is most known for her roles as Nikki Faber on the ABC sitcom Spin City (1996-2000); as Tami Taylor on the NBC/DirecTV sports drama Friday Night Lights (2006-2011), for which she was nominated for two Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Lead Actress.
In November 2011, Britton adopted a son named Eyob “Yoby” Britton from Ethiopia after a three (3) year adoption process. The decision to start a family on her own wasn’t easy, either:
“There was a lot of grief about having not started this journey with the man who was going to be my partner. I anticipate finishing it with a man who’s going to be my partner,” Britton said. “I definitely had to grieve that, but I also didn’t want to wait anymore. I absolutely know that this was something that I wanted for my life, and I’m really fortunate. . . and I feel like I can do it.”
But from the moment she laid eyes on Yoby, Britton knew it was meant to be.
“I do very strongly believe that he and I did choose each other,” she said, smiling. “I think that’s really true with adopted children. I know that he is my son.”
What makes Britton remarkable is the fact that, Yoby is of African descent.
Although Britton has a hectic and rigorous schedule, she is a loving mother to Yoby. Yoby is one of the few lucky orphans who has been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. He is extremely loved by his new mommy.
Adoptive Mom to: Lukensia ‘Lu’ Michaels
Jillian Michaels is best known as a personal trainer, reality show personality, talk show host and entrepreneur. Most notably from NBC’s ‘Biggest Loser’.
She is the mother of two year-old daughter, Lukensia “Lu”, adopted from Haiti in early May 2012, and a son, Phoenix, born to Michaels’ partner Heidi Rhoades on May 3, 2012. The celebrity trainer said the adoption process was not easy, and after a year and a half of waiting for a referral from Africa, she switched gears:
“I switched all my paperwork over to Haiti and I get a phone call one day,” she shared. “Heidi has been trying to get pregnant for five months now. They say, ‘We have a referral for you,’ which means they’ve matched you with a child. I was like, ‘This is unbelievable, this is great!’ I come home and tell Heidi, and in less than 24 hours she says, ‘By the way, I’m pregnant.’ ”
What makes Michaels remarkable is the fact that, Lu is of African descent (Haitians are descendants of Africa).
Although Michaels has a hectic and rigorous schedule, she is a loving mother to Lu. Lu is one of the few lucky orphans who has been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. She is extremely loved by his new mommy and fits right in with her other sibling.
Adoptive mom to: Isabella June and Connor Anthony Cruise
Nicole Kidman is an Australian-American actress, singer and film producer. Following several films over the early 1990s, she came to worldwide recognition for her performances in Days of Thunder (1990), Far and Away (1992), and Batman Forever (1995). Her performance asVirginia Woolf in the drama film The Hours (2002) received critical acclaim and earned Kidman the Academy Award for Best Actress
Kidman is adoptive mother to two children with her former husband Tom Cruise. Her daughter, Isabella Jane (born 22 December 1992) and a son, Connor Anthony (born 17 January 1995), who however live with their father Tom Cruise. She is also mother to two biological daughters with her current husband Australian country singer Keith Urban.
The Aussie couple’s baby was born via a surrogate in their adopted Nashville, Tennessee (14 January 2011). The couple’s first daughter together, Sunday Rose Kidman Urban, was born on 7 July 2008, in Nashville. On 28 December 2010, Kidman and Urban welcomed their second daughter together, Faith Margaret Kidman Urban.
What makes Kidman and Cruise remarkable is the fact that, Connor is of African-American descent.
Connor and Isabella are two of a few lucky orphans who have been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. They are extremely loved by their parents.
Adoptive mom to: Gemma Rose Davis
Kristin Davis is an actress who first rose to prominence and achieved fame for playing the role of Brooke Armstrong on Melrose Place and went on to achieve greater success as Charlotte York Goldenblatt on HBO’s Sex and the City.
Before the adoption of Gemma Rose, the actress had the chance to play a woman desperately wanting a baby and ultimately choosing to adopt. Davis’ Sex and the City character, Charlotte York Goldenblatt, and fictional husband Harry Goldenblatt adopted a fictional baby girl named Lily from China.
Charlotte later went on to give birth to a baby girl named Rose:
“This is something I have wanted for a very long time,” Kristin Davis said to People magazine, who reports the baby girl was adopted domestically two months ago. “Having this wish come true is even more gratifying than I ever had imagined. I feel so blessed.”
‘Once she came I was like, “Hey I can do this, this is OK.” So I mull it over, but because I’m a single mom, I want to focus on her and make sure I’m doing a good job first.’
She said: ‘I had totally forgotten that on Sex and the City I also had a child named Rose and since I did this whole thing in secret I didn’t talk to anybody about the naming or the adopting at all and I didn’t realize the connection. Then we announced and everybody was like, “Oh, she named her after her ‘Sex and The City’ baby,”
‘I didn’t even consciously (realize it), not at all, not at all. I almost named her Rose as a first name because I kept thinking it’s such a beautiful name. Isn’t it weird? I think it was lodged unconsciously.’
What makes Davis remarkable is the fact that, Gemma is of African-American descent.
Gemma is one of the few lucky orphans who has been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. She is extremely loved by her mom.
Adoptive mom to: Louis Bardo Bullock
Sandra Bullock is an Academy Award winning actress and producer who rose to fame in the 1990s after roles in successful films such as Demolition Man, Speed, The Net, Hope Floats, A Time to Kill, and While You Were Sleeping.
Bullock announced on April 28, 2010, that she had proceeded with plans to adopt a baby boy born in January 2010 in New Orleans. Bullock and ex-husband James had begun an initial adoption process four years earlier.
The child began living with them in January 2010, but they chose to keep the news private until after the Oscars in March 2010. However, given the couple’s separation and then divorce, Bullock continued the adoption of the baby, named Louis Bardo Bullock, as a single parent.
Bullock has flourished since the adoption and clearly loves being a mom, saying: “He’s just perfect, I can’t even describe him any other way,” Bullock reveals exclusively in the new issue of PEOPLE, announcing that she is the proud mother of Louis Bardo Bullock, a 3½-month-old boy, born in New Orleans. “It’s like he’s always been a part of our lives.”
“It’s made me a better person. I really appreciate where I am.” Bullock is currently making plans to adopt another baby. She has stated: “care whether or not it’s a boy or girl. She just wants a healthy a baby.”
What makes Bullock remarkable is the fact that, Louis is of African-American descent.
Louis is one of the few lucky orphans who has been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. He is extremely loved by his mom.
Adoptive mom to: Nancy Leigh ‘Naleigh’ and Adalaide Marie Hope Kelley
Katherine Heigl is possibly best known for her role as Dr. Isobel “Izzie” Stevens on ABC‘s medical drama Grey’s Anatomy from 2005 to 2010, for which she won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series in 2007.
In September 2009, Heigl and her husband singer Josh Kelly adopted a baby girl from Korea, Nancy Leigh Kelley.
On September 9, 2009, Heigl’s representative said the couple had started the process of adopting a baby girl from South Korea. Later that month, the couple adopted a baby girl with special needs they named Nancy Leigh (after Heigl’s mother and sister, respectively), nicknamed Naleigh.
Heigl’s sister is Korean-born and was adopted before Heigl was born. The baby had to have a congenital heart defect repaired with open heart surgery before she had left Korea.
Of the adoption process, the actress said: “actually, she came to us two months early. The adoption agency told us she would probably come after Christmas and not to get our hopes up because with international adoptions the babies never come early.”
“And so I had taken a movie project with a schedule that would allow me to be done in early November. Then we got a call and they said the baby was coming in two weeks. We were like: two weeks? I considered trying to pull out of the film, but they couldn’t replace me. She came two days before we got on a plane to Atlanta to start shooting.”
She admits she and her husband wanted children immediately but it didn’t happen: “My husband and I wanted to have a baby, and to us it didn’t matter how it happened. Adoption has been a part of my life and a part of my family, so it was how I wanted to start. It felt natural and right to me.”
Kelley and Heigl adopted a second daughter from the U.S. in April 2012, named Adalaide Marie Hope Kelley.
On Adalaide’s adoption the actress said: “This was fascinating because we started the adoption process again and we thought we were going to adopt internationally. It’s a pretty long process. It can take years,” she said her initial plans to find a sibling for Naleigh, 4, with husband Josh Kelley.
While the couple adopted Naleigh from Korea, they opened up their search this time around.
“And then we started exploring because we had heard that Korea had gotten very hard to adopt from, and China had a very, very long waiting list and I was like (taps wrist), any day now,” she continued
As it turns out, they found a match within the U.S. this time around.
“And so we started exploring the idea of domestic adoption – just exploring – and then my lawyer called and said: ‘There’s a birth mother and she’s due in four weeks and she’s all yours if you want her,’” the Knocked Up star said.
Katherine said the immediacy of their adoption news came as a surprise to her musician husband.
“He thought it was going to be a few years, and that we were going to end up with more of like a 9-month-old or 10-month-old, and he looked at me and said, ‘You’re telling me in a month we’re going to have a newborn?’ And I said: ‘Yes. It’s perfect timing, don’t you think? Look we’re both here, we’re not working. This is great. We can spend time with her,’ she shared.
The proud mom added: “And it has been beautifully serendipitous and graceful, because we’ve gotten to spend all this wonderful time with her.”
What makes Heigl and her husband Kelley remarkable is the fact that, Nancy Leigh ‘Naleigh’ and Adalaide Marie Hope are of Asian descent.
Naleigh and Adalaide are a few of the lucky orphans who have been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. They is extremely loved by their parents.
Adoptive mom to: Jackson Theron
Charlize Theron is a South African actress and fashion model. She started her acting career in the United States and rose to fame in the late 1990s following roles in The Devil’s Advocate (1997), Mighty Joe Young (1998), and The Cider House Rules (1999).
Theron won the Academy Award for Best Actress and Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama for her portrayal of serial killer Aileen Wuornos in Monster (2003),
In March 2012, Theron announced the adoption of her son Jackson.
She spoke of the adoption process stating:
“My mother found [a letter I wrote. It said, ‘Would you please take me to orphanage, so that I can go and adopt a baby?'” she told Australia’s Madison magazine. “I always knew I would adopt. Always.”
Being a mother might have always been in the cards but the “Snow White and the Huntsman” star, who split with actor Stuart Townsend after nine years in 2010, wasn’t expecting to do it alone.
“You, know, I don’t think any mother aims to be a single mom. I didn’t wish for that, but it happened,” she explained, adding that the idea of marriage has never been that important to her. “I don’t know why exactly.”
“Some might say it’s because my parents didn’t have a good marriage, But I don’t think so. I treat my relationships like marriages. The ceremony isn’t that important to me.”
For Theron, starting a family was more important than waiting to find the right partner: “I’ve always been very honest in saying I wanted a family. I’ve always known I wanted a family,” she recently told Vogue, before joking, “I don’t think my mom could wait any more!”
Adopting baby Jackson sounds like it was the right move for Theron, who recently told the U.K. paper The Sun that she’s never felt more creative and energetic, even on the tiny amount of sleep she’s getting.
“I never knew I needed that little sleep. I always had eight hours and now it’s, ‘Wow, OK, you can function on just four.’ But Jackson is great. I’ve always been very aware of balance and, even before I had a child, my life always takes priority to my work.”
What makes Theron remarkable is the fact that, Jackson is of African descent.
Jackson is one of the few lucky orphans who has been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. He is extremely loved by his mom.
Adoptive dad to: Frances Burrell and 2nd daughter
Actor/comedian Tyler Burrell, notably known as ‘Ty’, is known for his role as Phil Dunphy in the ABC comedy Modern Family. On March 18, 2010, it was announced that Burrell and his wife had adopted a baby girl, Frances. In March 2012, Burrell and his wife adopted a second daughter.
No additional details are known about where Burrell and his wife Holly adopted their daughters from or the name of their second daughter.
What makes the Burrells remarkable is the fact that, Frances and her younger sister are of African/African-American descent.
Frances and her younger sister are a few of the lucky orphans who have been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. They are extremely loved by their new mom and dad.
Adoptive dad to: Caroline, Elijah and R.J. Wells
In 2012, Scott and his wife Julie, who are already parents to three children: Jackson 9, Lola 6 and Kingston 3, adopted three children from Uganda: Caroline 5, Elijah 3 and R.J., 2.
The couple went through a lengthy adoption process that included delayed court appearances in the war-torn East Africa country. There also was a 10-week stay for Julie in the nation to complete paperwork to gain legal custody and the visas required to bring them to the United States. At the time, Scott returned without her to begin training camp in St. Louis.
And almost four months later, the Wells family prepares to celebrate the festive season together.
What makes the Wells remarkable is the fact that, Caroline, Elijah and R.J., are of African descent.
Caroline, Elijah and R.J., are a few of the lucky orphans who have been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. They are extremely loved by their new mom and dad and fit right in with their other siblings.
Adoptive mom to: Caroline ‘Ash’ Aberash Parker
Mary Louise Parker is an actress known for her lead role on Showtime’s television series Weeds portraying Nancy Botwin, for which she has received several nominations and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in 2006.
From 1996 to November 2003, Parker dated actor Billy Crudup, with whom she had a son, William Atticus Parker, born on January 7, 2004 (Crudup had left her two months earlier).
In September 2007, Parker adopted a baby girl from Ethiopia, Caroline ‘Ash’ Aberash Parker. “Weeds” star Mary Louise Parker fought back tears during a TV interview when she recalled the first time her son met his adopted sister and welcomed the little girl with open arms.
The actress became mum to Ethiopian girl Caroline ‘Ash’ Aberash in 2007, a little sister for her biological son William, now five.
She admits she didn’t really discuss the adoption with her son until the legal documents had been approved and finalized. But the timing luckily coincided with her son’s desire to have a younger sibling.
She said, “I waited and one day he said, ‘Mummy, a little brother or sister is something I don’t have, so I think we should turn around and go to the pet store and get one.’ I was like, ‘I don’t think they have those at the pet store…’ But my paperwork had already gone through so I was like, ‘I think I’ll do that’.”
Parker decided to take William with her to meet Ash for the first time and she reveals it is one of her most treasured memories, because he was so accepting of his new sister. The actress confesses she was a little overwhelmed by the whole adoption process, and her son actually helped her cope with the big life change.
Fighting back tears on The Bonnie Hunt Show, she explained, “One of the most amazing, magical things was my son, when he saw her, he was just immediately like, ‘I’m your brother,’ and, in a way, I learned from him.”
“It’s like, ‘There’s this child, my child, and you have an afro (hairstyle), what do I do with you? You’re malnourished, what do I do?’ But he was just like, ‘You’re ours!’ And a month later he’s hitting her over the head with his (toy)!”
But Parker has no regrets about taking on such a big task as a single mother: “It’s crazy and hard and she’s a little crazy! But it’s amazing and magical and it wouldn’t be my family without her.”
What makes Parker remarkable is the fact that, Caroline is of African descent.
Caroline is one of the few lucky orphans who has been fortunate to find a loving and caring home. She is extremely loved by her mom and brother.
- 30 Hottest Multiracial Mommas 2012 (kolorblindmag.com)
- What White Adoptive Parents of Black Children Should Know (kolorblindmag.com)
- The issue about Transracial Adoptions… (kolorblindmag.com)
- Follow Madonna’s Beauty Looks Throughout the Years (bellasugar.com)
- Connie Britton: Moms are sexy (belfasttelegraph.co.uk)
- Mariska Hargitay & Her Family Love Halloween (hollywoodlife.com)
- Madonna’s daughter to move in with father? (contactmusic.com)
- Angelina Jolie wants to be her children’s friend (contactmusic.com)
- Angelina Jolie Upset About Her Children Listening to Madonna’s Music? (gossipcop.com)
- Jane Aronson, the Orphan Doctor. The Babble Interview. | Babble (babble.com)
- 11 Biggest Celebrity Sanct-Mommies | Babble (babble.com)
- Russian adoption ban brings uncertainty, outrage and possible danger to orphans with disabilities there (pattidudek.typepad.com)